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joi, 26 decembrie 2013

Verificare caracteristici LED-uri: multicolore (RGB) sau monocolore

  In pauza dintre sarbatorile de iarna, m-am gandit sa folosesc la un proiect niste LED-uri multicolore (RGB) depsre care nu stiam prea multe (tensiunea pe fiecare tip de LED, daca sunt cu catod comun sau anod comun),asa ca am improvizat un montaj de test.
  Prima data am folosit multimetrul pe domeniul de verificare diode si continuitati, stiind ca piciorusul cel mai lung al unui LED RGB este comun, am depistat, in cazul meu, ca LED-ul este cu catod comun (se alimenteaza cu plus cele 3 LED-uri si masa e comuna).
  Am facut masuratori folosind o sursa de tensiune stabilizata reglata la 5V (4,99V de fapt), inseriind la catodul comun prima data o rezistenta de 220 ohmi, apoi am alimentat fiecare LED si am masurat caderea de tensiune.
   Am schimbat rezistenta cu una de 150 ohmi obtinand:
 
iar in cazul unei rezistente de 100 ohmi:
si daca tot eram la capitolul teste cu rezistenta de 100 ohmi, am veriifcat si un LED alb:
   Schemele de conectare sunt, pentru LED-ul RGB:
 
 
iar pentru cel alb:
   Ca rezumat, pe LED-urile rosii caderea de tensiune este 2..2,1V, pe LED-urile verzi si albastre 2,9..3,1V iar pe cele albe cam 3,2V. 
   NOTA: curentul maxim prin LED-urile obisnuite este de cca. 20mA !!!

joi, 19 decembrie 2013

Senzorul de temperatura TMP36 (LM50) si Arduino

   In pachetul numit "The Arduino Starter kit" se gaseste si senzorul de temperatura TMP36 fabricat de ANALOG DEVICES, care este compatibil 100% cu senzorul fabricat de TEXAS INSTRUMENTS numit LM50 (care lucreaza similar cu mai cunoscutul senzor LM35).
   Fata de senzorul de temperatura LM335, senzorul TMP36 se conecteaza direct la tensiunea de alimentare.
  Un articol cu multe explicatii se gaseste la TMP36 Temperature Sensor de pe site-ul Adafruit Learning System:
   Am realizat si eu montajul si apoi am incarcat primul sketch de acolo obtinand:
   Deoarece valorile citite variaza prea mult, am facut o mica modificare la sketch, cititnd 10 valori la 200ms intre ele si apoi facand o medie.
   Sketch-ul modificat de mine este urmatorul:   
// original sketch from http://learn.adafruit.com/tmp36-temperature-sensor/using-a-temp-sensor
// adapted sketch by niq_ro from http://nicuflorica.blogspot.com

//TMP36 Pin Variables
int sensorPin = 0; //the analog pin the TMP36's Vout (sense) pin is connected to A0
                        //the resolution is 10 mV / degree centigrade with a
                        //500 mV offset to allow for negative temperatures
 /*
 * setup() - this function runs once when you turn your Arduino on
 * We initialize the serial connection with the computer
 */

// added part by niq_ro
float vmed = 0;
float ve = 0;  


void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);  //Start the serial connection with the computer
                       //to view the result open the serial monitor 
}
 
void loop()                     // run over and over again
{
 vmed = 0;
 ve=0;
  
 for (int j = 0; j < 10; j++)  {
  
 //getting the voltage reading from the temperature sensor
 int reading = analogRead(sensorPin);  
    
 // converting that reading to voltage, for 3.3v arduino use 3.3
 float voltage = reading * 5.0;
 voltage /= 1024.0; 
 
 vmed = vmed + voltage;
 delay(200);
 
 }
 ve = vmed/10;
 
 // print out the voltage
 Serial.print(ve); Serial.println(" volts");
 
 // now print out the temperature
 float temperatureC = (ve - 0.5) * 100 ;  //converting from 10 mv per degree wit 500 mV offset
                                               //to degrees ((voltage - 500mV) times 100)
 Serial.print(temperatureC); Serial.println(" degrees C");
 
 // now convert to Fahrenheit
 float temperatureF = (temperatureC * 9.0 / 5.0) + 32.0;
 Serial.print(temperatureF); Serial.println(" degrees F");
 
 delay(1000);                                     //waiting a second
}

   

luni, 16 decembrie 2013

Afisaje LED cu 7 segmente si.. Arduino (IV)

   Fata de articolul anterior, acum am introdus facilitatea de a regla manual orele si minutele, la ceas...
   Schema de baza, este aceeasi, doar ca se adauga partea de reglaj (3 butoane, unul cu care se reseteaza datele, unul pentru minute si unul pentru ore). Cand se face reglajul, butonul de resetare date trebuie tinut apasat... partea aceasta am gasit-o la http://www.bristolwatch.com/arduino/arduino_ds1307.htm
   Un filmuletul demonstrativ se numeste ceas cu reglaj manual cu Arduino si afisaj LED cu 7 segmente multiplexat, respectiv manual adjust for RTC clock with Arduino and 7-segment LED display (cu tentativa de explicatii in limba engleza):
PS: Am desenat toata schema sa nu apara confuzii:
  Sketch-ul este urmatorul:
/*
 4 digit 7 segment display: http://www.sparkfun.com/products/9483
 Datasheet: http://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Components/LED/7-Segment/YSD-439AR6B-35.pdf
 7 segments + 4 digits + 1 colon = 12 pins required for full control 
 */
// modified connexion by niq_ro from http://nicuflorica.blogspot.com
// for my Luckylight KW4-563ASA
// dataseet: http://www.tme.eu/ro/Document/dfc2efde2e22005fd28615e298ea2655/KW4-563XSA.pdf

int digit1 = 11; //PWM Display pin 12 (digit1 is common anonds A1 from right side)
int digit2 = 10; //PWM Display pin 9 (digit2 is  common A2)
int digit3 = 9; //PWM Display pin 8 (digit3 is common anods A3)
int digit4 = 6; //PWM Display pin 6 (digit4 is common anods, from left side)

//Pin mapping from Arduino to the ATmega DIP28 if you need it
//http://www.arduino.cc/en/Hacking/PinMapping
int segA = 2; //Display pin 11
int segB = 3; //Display pin 7
int segC = 4; //Display pin 4
int segD = 5; //Display pin 2
int segE = 12; //Display pin 1
int segF = 7; //Display pin 10
int segG = 8; //Display pin 5
int segDP = 13; // Display pin 3

#include <Wire.h>
#include "RTClib.h"
RTC_DS1307 RTC;

// Date and time functions using a DS1307 RTC connected via I2C and Wire lib
// original sketck from http://learn.adafruit.com/ds1307-real-time-clock-breakout-board-kit/
// add part with SQW=1Hz from http://tronixstuff.wordpress.com/2010/10/20/tutorial-arduino-and-the-i2c-bus/
// add part with manual adjust http://www.bristolwatch.com/arduino/arduino_ds1307.htm

byte SW0 = A0; byte SW1 = A1; byte SW2 = A2; // use for hexa in zecimal conversion int zh, uh, ore; int zm, um, miniti; void setup() {     // Serial.begin(57600);   Wire.begin();   RTC.begin(); // RTC.adjust(DateTime(__DATE__, __TIME__)); // if you need set clock... just remove // from line above this // part code for flashing LED Wire.beginTransmission(0x68); Wire.write(0x07); // move pointer to SQW address // Wire.write(0x00); // turns the SQW pin off  Wire.write(0x10); // sends 0x10 (hex) 00010000 (binary) to control register - turns on square wave at 1Hz // Wire.write(0x13); // sends 0x13 (hex) 00010011 (binary) 32kHz Wire.endTransmission();   if (! RTC.isrunning()) {     Serial.println("RTC is NOT running!");     // following line sets the RTC to the date & time this sketch was compiled     RTC.adjust(DateTime(__DATE__, __TIME__));   }       // dht.begin();   pinMode(segA, OUTPUT);   pinMode(segB, OUTPUT);   pinMode(segC, OUTPUT);   pinMode(segD, OUTPUT);   pinMode(segE, OUTPUT);   pinMode(segF, OUTPUT);   pinMode(segG, OUTPUT);   pinMode(segDP, OUTPUT);   pinMode(digit1, OUTPUT);   pinMode(digit2, OUTPUT);   pinMode(digit3, OUTPUT);   pinMode(digit4, OUTPUT);    //  pinMode(13, OUTPUT);  Serial.begin(9600);  Serial.println("test for niq_ro");  pinMode(SW0, INPUT); // for this use a slide switch   pinMode(SW1, INPUT); // N.O. push button switch   pinMode(SW2, INPUT); // N.O. push button switch   digitalWrite(SW0, HIGH); // pull-ups on   digitalWrite(SW1, HIGH);   digitalWrite(SW2, HIGH); } void loop() { digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);   DateTime now = RTC.now();   int timp = now.hour()*100+now.minute(); //   int timp = (now.minute(), DEC); //   displayNumber(12); // this is number to diplay //   int timp = 1234;   Serial.print(now.hour(), DEC);   Serial.print(":");   Serial.print(now.minute(), DEC);   Serial.print(" -> ");   Serial.print(timp);   Serial.println(" !"); // display parts       for(int i = 250 ; i >0 ; i--) {      if (timp >= 1000) displayNumber01(timp);      else displayNumber02(timp);    }     for(int i = 250 ; i >0 ; i--) {      if (timp >= 1000) displayNumber03(timp);      else displayNumber04(timp);    }    if (!(digitalRead(SW0))) set_time(); // hold the switch to set timevoid set_time() {   byte minutes1 = 0;   byte hours1 = 0;   byte minutes = 0;   byte hours = 0;   while (!digitalRead(SW0)) // set time switch must be released to exit   {     minutes1=minutes;     hours1=hours;                while (!digitalRead(SW1)) // set minutes     {       minutes++;      // converting hexa in zecimal:     zh = hours / 16;     uh = hours - 16 * zh ;     ore = 10 * zh + uh;      zm = minutes / 16;     um = minutes - 16 * zm ;     miniti = 10 * zm + um;            for(int i = 20 ; i >0 ; i--) {      displayNumber01(ore*100+miniti);       }              if ((minutes & 0x0f) > 9) minutes = minutes + 6;       if (minutes > 0x59) minutes = 0;       Serial.print("Minutes = ");       if (minutes >= 9) Serial.print("0");       Serial.println(minutes, HEX);     delay(150);     }     while (!digitalRead(SW2)) // set hours     {       hours++;                    // converting hexa in zecimal:     zh = hours / 16;     uh = hours - 16 * zh ;     ore = 10 * zh + uh;      zm = minutes / 16;     um = minutes - 16 * zm ;     miniti = 10 * zm + um;            for(int i = 20 ; i >0 ; i--) {      displayNumber01(ore*100+miniti);       }                  if ((hours & 0x0f) > 9) hours = hours + 6;       if (hours > 0x23) hours = 0;       Serial.print("Hours = ");       if (hours <= 9) Serial.print("0");       Serial.println(hours, HEX);     delay(150);     }     Wire.beginTransmission(0x68); // activate DS1307     Wire.write(0); // where to begin     Wire.write(0x00); //seconds     Wire.write(minutes); //minutes     Wire.write(0x80 | hours); //hours (24hr time)     Wire.write(0x06); // Day 01-07     Wire.write(0x01); // Date 0-31     Wire.write(0x05); // month 0-12     Wire.write(0x09); // Year 00-99     Wire.write(0x10); // Control 0x10 produces a 1 HZ square wave on pin 7.     Wire.endTransmission();        // converting hexa in zecimal:     zh = hours / 16;     uh = hours - 16 * zh ;     ore = 10 * zh + uh;      zm = minutes / 16;     um = minutes - 16 * zm ;     miniti = 10 * zm + um;            for(int i = 20 ; i >0 ; i--) {      displayNumber01(ore*100+miniti);       }  // delay(150);        }    } void displayNumber01(int toDisplay) { #define DISPLAY_BRIGHTNESS  500 #define DIGIT_ON  HIGH #define DIGIT_OFF  LOW   for(int digit = 4 ; digit > 0 ; digit--) {     //Turn on a digit for a short amount of time     switch(digit) {     case 1:      digitalWrite(digit1, DIGIT_ON);      digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;    case 2:       digitalWrite(digit2, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, LOW);       break;     case 3:       digitalWrite(digit3, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     case 4:       digitalWrite(digit4, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     }     lightNumber(toDisplay % 10);     toDisplay /= 10;     delayMicroseconds(DISPLAY_BRIGHTNESS);      //Turn off all segments     lightNumber(10);      //Turn off all digits     digitalWrite(digit1, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit2, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit3, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit4, DIGIT_OFF); } }  void displayNumber02(int toDisplay) { #define DISPLAY_BRIGHTNESS  500 #define DIGIT_ON  HIGH #define DIGIT_OFF  LOW   for(int digit = 4 ; digit > 0 ; digit--) {     //Turn on a digit for a short amount of time     switch(digit) {     case 1:      lightNumber(10);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);      break;    case 2:       digitalWrite(digit2, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, LOW);       break;     case 3:       digitalWrite(digit3, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     case 4:       digitalWrite(digit4, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     }     lightNumber(toDisplay % 10);     toDisplay /= 10;     delayMicroseconds(DISPLAY_BRIGHTNESS);      //Turn off all segments     lightNumber(10);      //Turn off all digits     digitalWrite(digit1, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit2, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit3, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit4, DIGIT_OFF); } }  void displayNumber03(int toDisplay) { #define DISPLAY_BRIGHTNESS  500 #define DIGIT_ON  HIGH #define DIGIT_OFF  LOW   for(int digit = 4 ; digit > 0 ; digit--) {     //Turn on a digit for a short amount of time     switch(digit) {     case 1:      digitalWrite(digit1, DIGIT_ON);      digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;    case 2:       digitalWrite(digit2, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     case 3:       digitalWrite(digit3, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     case 4:       digitalWrite(digit4, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     }     lightNumber(toDisplay % 10);     toDisplay /= 10;     delayMicroseconds(DISPLAY_BRIGHTNESS);      //Turn off all segments     lightNumber(10);      //Turn off all digits     digitalWrite(digit1, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit2, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit3, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit4, DIGIT_OFF); } }  void displayNumber04(int toDisplay) { #define DISPLAY_BRIGHTNESS  500 #define DIGIT_ON  HIGH #define DIGIT_OFF  LOW   for(int digit = 4 ; digit > 0 ; digit--) {     //Turn on a digit for a short amount of time     switch(digit) {     case 1:      lightNumber(10);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);      break;    case 2:       digitalWrite(digit2, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     case 3:       digitalWrite(digit3, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     case 4:       digitalWrite(digit4, DIGIT_ON);       digitalWrite(segDP, HIGH);       break;     }     lightNumber(toDisplay % 10);     toDisplay /= 10;     delayMicroseconds(DISPLAY_BRIGHTNESS);      //Turn off all segments     lightNumber(10);      //Turn off all digits     digitalWrite(digit1, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit2, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit3, DIGIT_OFF);     digitalWrite(digit4, DIGIT_OFF); } }  //Given a number, turns on those segments //If number == 10, then turn off number void lightNumber(int numberToDisplay) { #define SEGMENT_ON  LOW #define SEGMENT_OFF HIGH   switch (numberToDisplay){   case 0:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_OFF);     break;   case 1:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_OFF);     break;   case 2:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_ON);     break;   case 3:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_ON);     break;   case 4:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_ON);     break;   case 5:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_ON);     break;   case 6:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_ON);     break;   case 7:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_OFF);     break;   case 8:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_ON);     break;   case 9:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_ON);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_ON);     break;   // all segment are ON   case 10:     digitalWrite(segA, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segB, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segC, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segD, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segE, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segF, SEGMENT_OFF);     digitalWrite(segG, SEGMENT_OFF);     break;      } }